Change the way you grow older by protecting your memory for the many years ahead.
Human clinical studies show phosphatidylserine may assist against the symptoms of dementia and
Age-Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI), also in reducing the risk of dementia and cognitive
A reversal of brain-aging of nearly 14 years was shown after 12 weeks of
supplementation with 300 mg per day of phosphatidylserine. Improvements were found in
learning and remembering written information, remembering names and recognizing people, and memory of
Seventy-five patients with age-related memory impairment were given 300 mg of phosphatidylserine per day
for 12 weeks. Phosphatidylserine supplementation led to improved performance tests
related to learning and memory tasks of daily life. Another study of 33 patients with dementia showed
equally promising results. This eight-week study of 300 mg per day of phosphatidylserine showed that
phosphatidylserine can significantly improve dementia. (166, 123)
How Does PhosphatidylSerine Work?
Phosphatidylserine enables your brain cells to metabolize glucose and to release and bind with
neurotransmitters, all of which is important to learning, memory and other cognitive functions. (127)
Phosphatidylserine increases communication between brain cells by increasing the number of membrane
receptor sites for receiving messages. The fatty substance modulates the fluidity of cell membranes—essential
to your brain cells' ability to send and receive chemical communication. (14)
Restores Neurotransmitters— Activity, Supply and Output
Restores Supply and Output of Acetylcholine
Studies demonstrate phosphatidylserine restores the brain’s supply and output of
acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter important to memory, and so may
turn back the clock in an aging brain. (126, 127, 168)
Phosphatidylserine restores acetylcholine release by maintaining an adequate acetylcholine supply. Phosphatidylserine can increase the availability of endogenous choline for de novo synthesis and release (128-131), while similar use of phosphatidylcholine had no effect. (132)
Stimulates Brain Dopamine
Phosphatidylserine restores dopamine release and benefits glutamatergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic, glutamatergic and cholinergic neurotransmission play an important role in learning, memory and other cognitive functions. (133,299)
Persons diagnosed with clinical depression have shown marked improvement in their symptoms as a result of taking phosphatidylserine daily and this is likely connected to the finding that phosphatidylserine restores dopamine release. Reduced dopamine levels are also thought to contribute to attention deficit disorder and this natural substance has proven to be
an effective therapeutic agent for ADD and ADHD.(114, 128-133)
Validated by Patents and Clinical Trials Clinical Strength
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Validated by Patents and Clinical Trials Clinical Strength
14. Lombard, J. (board certified neurologist), et al. The brain wellness
plan - breakthrough medical, nutritional and immune-boosting therapies to
prevent and treat depression, alzheimer's disease, chronic fatigue syndrome,
attention deficit disorder, multiple sclerosis, parkinson's disease, lou
gehrig's disease. Kensington Pub. Corp. 1998.
114. Cenacchi T., et al. Cognitive decline in the elderly: A double-blind,
placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration.
Aging, 5: 123–133, 1993.
123. Engel R.R., Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1992 Jun;2(2):149-55.
126. Crook, T.H. Treatment of Age-Related Cognitive Decline: Effects of Phosphatidylserine in Anti-Aging 33
Medical Therapeutics,Vol II, edited by R.M. Klatz, Health Quest Publications, Chicago, 1998, 20-29.
127. Vannucchi, M.G., Pepeu, G. Effect of Phosphatidylserine on Acetylcholine Release and Content in
Cortical Slices From Aging Rats.Neurobiol Aging 1987, 8(5), 403-407.
128. Vannucchi, M.G., Casamenti, F., Pepeu, G. Decrease of acetylcholine release from cortical slices in
aged rats: investigations into its reversal by Phosphatidylserine. J. Neurochem 1990, 55, 819-25.
129. Pepeu, G., Giovanelli, L., Giovannini, M.G., Pedata, F. Effects of Phosphatidylserine on cortical
acetylcholine release and calcium uptake in adult and aging rats. In Phospholipid research and the
nervous system. Biochemical and molecular pharmacology. Horrocks, L.A., Freysz, L., Toffano, G. (Eds),
Liviana Press, Padova, 1986, 265-271.
130. Casamenti, F., Mantovani, P., Amaducci, L., Pepeu, G. Effect of phosphatidylserine on acetylcholine
output from the cerebral cortex of the rat. J. Neurochem 1979, 32, 529-533.
131. Casamenti, F., Scali, C., Pepeu, G. Phosphatidylserine reverses the age-dependent decrease in cortical
acetylcholine release: a microdialysis study, Eur. J. Pharmacol 1991, 194, 11-16.
132. Pedata, F., Giovannelli, L., Spignoli, G., Giovannini, M.G., Pepeu, G. Phosphatidylserine increases
acetylcholine release from cortical slices in aged rats. Neurobiol Aging 1985, 6, 337-339.
133. Mazzari, S., Battistella, A. Phosphatidylserine effects on dopamine release from striatum
synaptosomes. In: Multidisciplinary Approach to Brain Development. Benedetta, C., Balazs, R.,
Gombos, G., Porcellani, G. (Eds.). Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam, 1980, 569-570.
166. Crook TH, Tinklenberg J, Yesavage J, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Neurology 1991; 41(5):644-9.
168. Schreiber S, Kampf-Sherf O, Gorfine M, Kelly D, Oppenheim Y, Lerer B. An open trial of plant-source derived phosphatidylserine for treatment of age-related cognitive decline. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2000;37(4):302-7.
209. Crook, TH, et al. The Memory Cure: the safe, scientifically proven breakthrough that can slow, halt, or even reverse age-related memory loss, Simon & Schuster, NY 1998.
214. Youngjohn JR, Larrabee GJ, Crook TH. First-last names and the grocery list selective reminding test: two computerized measures of everyday veral learning. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 6:287-300, 1991.
330. Zeisel SH. Choline: an essential nutrient for humans. Nutrition. 2000 Jul-Aug;16(7-8):669-71.
331. Blum K, Chen AL, Braverman ER, et al. Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2008 Oct;4(5):893-918.
332. Kapur S, Mann JJ. Role of the dopaminergic system in depression. Biol Psychiatry. 1992 Jul 1;32(1):1-17.
* Results vary by person and are not guaranteed. NOTE: We do not compensate
for our endorsements and testimonials. We do not consider paid testimonials to be nearly as valuable as comments
from customers who were not compensated and yet liked the products so much they gave their testimonials anyway.
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.