Consumer's Guide to


Why Isn't Diet Enough?

Why Supplement with Phosphatidylserine?

Dietary Undersupply of Phosphatidylserine. Chart of changes in phosphatidylserine consumption: Today’s typical diet: 130 mg; 1980s typical diet: 250 mg; Diet rich in meat and fish: 180 mg; Low fat diet: 100 mg; Vegetarian diet: less than 50 mg; Children's diet: less than 30mg. Conclusion: Modern low-fat and low-cholesterol diets lack up to 150 mg per day of dietary phosphatidylserine.

Modern low-fat and low-cholesterol diets lack up to 150 mg per day of dietary phosphatidylserine. (135)

ABOVE: Changes in our Western diet have resulted in a significant decrease in phosphatidylserine consumption in recent years, including rejection of fat, innards, organ meats and poultry skin (e.g., low-fat, low-cholesterol, and reduced-meat diets). (135)

Your brain is composed of about 60 percent fat, so healthy fats are critical to your brain’s health. While good fats should be found in abundance in various unprocessed foods, phosphatidylserine is deficient in the modern Western diet.

Modern low-fat and low-cholesterol diets lack up to 150 mg per day of dietary phosphatidylserine. A vegetarian diet may undersupply as much as 200 to 250 mg per day. Other eating styles also create a demand for more phosphatidyl serine. For example, a diet deficient in omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the amount of phosphatidylserine in the brain by 28% and thereby impair your brain’s ability to form, store, process and remember. (135)

To make matters worse, modern industrial production of fats and oils decreases all of the natural phospholipids—including phosphatidylserine.

Changes in our Western diet have resulted in a significant decrease in phosphatidylserine consumption in recent years, including rejection of fat, innards, organ meats and poultry skin (e.g., low-fat, low-cholesterol, and reduced-meat diets).

Changes in Meat Consumption in US (lbs/person)

YEAR Beef Pork Veal Chicken
1970 51.8 lbs 28.1 lbs 1.0 lbs 15.8 lbs
1986 48.5 lbs 27.8 lbs 0.7 lbs 21.0 lbs
2009 37.8 lbs 27.2 lbs 0.2 lbs 32.3 lbs

ABOVE: USDA/Economic Research Service,

Nutritional concern about fat and cholesterol has encouraged the production of leaner animals, the closer trimming of outside fat on retail cuts of meat, the marketing of lower-fat ground meat and processed meat products, and consumer substitution of poultry for red meat—significantly lowering the meat, poultry, and fish group—contribution to total fat and saturated fat in the food supply. Despite near record-high per capita consumption of total meat in 1994, the proportion of fat in the U.S. food supply contributed by meat, poultry, and fish declined from 35 percent in 1970 to 25 percent in 1994.

ABOVE: “Food Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures,” 1970-97, USDA/Economic Research Service,

Dietary Sources of Phosphatidylserine

Food PS in mg/100g
Brain (bovine, ox) 713
Heart (chicken) 414
(internal organs, intestines)
Spleen (pig) 239
Kidney (pig) 218
Chicken leg with skin 134
Chicken leg, no skin 50
Chicken liver 123
Chicken breast with skin 85
Chicken breast, no skin 45
Veal (average) 72
Beef (average) 69
Pork (average) 57
Pig liver 50
Food PS in mg/100g
Mackerel 480
Herring 360
Tuna 194
Crayfish 40
Cod 28
Sardines 16
Trout 14
White beans 107
Barley (whole grain) 20
Rice (unpolished) 3
Carrot 2
Potato 1
Cow’s Milk (3.5% fat) 1
Cow’s Milk (1.5% fat) 0.5

(Above:) Phosphatidylserine (PS) content in various foods. (208)

Phosphatidylserine can be found in meat and fish, but most abundant in organs not served in Western diets, including the brains and internal organs such as liver and kidney. Only small amounts can be found in dairy or vegetables, except for white beans. (135)

Dietary intake of phosphatidylserine is essential because your body cannot synthesize the fatty molecule de novo. Phosphatidylserine supplementation has proven to restore activity of phosphatidylserine in your brain cell membranes, the chemical interaction and transfer of electrical impulses between neurons at both the sending and receiving ends. Thus, new information can more easily carve a new pattern and memories are reinvigorated. (209)

Phosphatidylserine Revitalizes Brain Communication

Phosphatidylserine is necessary for transmission of information between your brain cells.

Phosphatidylserine in Flavay Plus® acts as a signaling molecule for preserving and creating new memories. (10,126-128)

By building cell membranes, phosphatidylserine supplementation revitalizes the cells of your brain. Connections are formed; circuits are rebuilt. Scores of published human studies show that phosphatidylserine supplementation can:

  • improve your brain’s electrical rhythms,
  • reverse age-related memory decline,
  • ease anxiety,
  • lift depression,
  • benefit motor functions,
  • improve learning concentration and word skills.
  • modulate many aspects of cortisol overproduction, especially following intense exercise. (110, 117, 124, 210, 211)

Has sunflower-derived phosphatidylserine proven effective for cognitive improvement?

Change the way you grow older by protecting your memory for the many years ahead.

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