Consumer's Guide to


Clinically-Proven Benefits of Phosphatidylserine

Research shows an increase in phosphatidylserine may help improve children’s learning abilities and behavior.

Phosphatidylserine supplementation restores activity of phosphatidylserine in brain cell membranes, the chemical interaction and transfer of electrical impulses between neurons at both the sending and receiving ends. This means, new information can more easily carve a new pattern and memories are reinvigorated. (209)

Maintaining brain levels of phosphatidylserine is associated to normal and efficient signal transduction processes, efficient glucose metabolism and healthy cognitive and mental functions. (291,336,337)

Revitalize Brain Communication

Clinical data accumulated from over 20 years of controlled testing, including at least 21 double-blind clinical trials, shows phosphatidylserine supplementation benefits practically all higher functions of the brain. (110, 211, 212)

  • Helps normalize brain biochemistry and physiology at every level.
  • Improves memory, learning and other cognitive functions in people who are substantially impaired.
  • Improve depression and ease anxiety in people of all ages.
  • Help in coping with stress, both physical and emotional.
  • Potential to help children with attention and behavior problems.
  • Improve activities of daily living and other quality of life for people who suffer more severe memory loss.
  • As a dietary supplement, very well tolerated with virtually no adverse effects. (106,110,114-117,119)

Dietary intake of phosphatidylserine is essential because your body cannot synthesize the fatty molecule de novo.

Why Isn't Diet Enough?

Because of stress, aging, modern eating habits and food-production methods.

Dietary Undersupply of Phosphatidylserine. Chart of changes in phosphatidylserine consumption: Today’s typical diet: 130 mg; 1980s typical diet: 250 mg; Diet rich in meat and fish: 180 mg; Low fat diet: 100 mg; Vegetarian diet: less than 50 mg; Children's diet: less than 30mg. Conclusion: Modern low-fat and low-cholesterol diets lack up to 150 mg per day of dietary phosphatidylserine.

Modern low-fat and low-cholesterol diets lack up to 150 mg per day of dietary phosphatidylserine. (135)

ABOVE: Changes in our Western diet have resulted in a significant decrease in phosphatidylserine consumption in recent years, including rejection of fat, innards, organ meats and poultry skin (e.g., low-fat, low-cholesterol, and reduced-meat diets). (135)

Dietary Undersupply

Modern Diets: Modern low-fat and low-cholesterol diets lack up to 150 mg per day of dietary phosphatidylserine. A vegetarian diet may undersupply as much as 200 to 250 mg per day. Other eating styles also create a demand for more phosphatidylserine. For example, a diet deficient in omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the amount of phosphatidylserine in the brain by 28% and thereby impair your brain’s ability to form, store, process and remember. (135)

Modern Food Production: To make matters worse, modern industrial production of fats and oils decreases all of the natural phospholipids—including phosphatidylserine. (135)

The average daily intake of phosphatidylserine in Western diets is well below healthy levels.

Stress and Aging

Stress: Like burning a candle burning at both ends, stress increases the demand for phosphatidylserine and depletes your phosphatidylserine levels at the same time. (128-133)

Aging: The elderly particularly benefit from taking phosphatidylserine. While aging increases our brain’s need for phosphatidylserine it also creates digestive and metabolic inefficiency so that it’s simply not possible to get enough phosphatidylserine in diet. Considerable research proves that phosphatidylserine improves age-associated memory impairment and continued use prevents age-related decay of brain functions. (126, 168)

How Does Phosphatidylserine Work?

Restores Neurotransmitters—
Activity, Supply and Output

Phosphatidylserine enables your brain cells to metabolize glucose and to release and bind with neurotransmitters, all of which is important to learning, memory and other cognitive functions. (127)

Phosphatidylserine increases communication between brain cells by increasing the number of membrane receptor sites for receiving messages. Phosphatidylserine modulates the fluidity of cell membranes—essential to your brain cells' ability to send and receive chemical communication. (14)

Chart shows number of ChAT-positive cells showing synthesis and release of the essential brain neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Young vs old-impaired study shows healthy youthful levels were restored when taking phosphatidylserine.

Phosphatidylserine in Flavay Plus® replenishes ChAT-positive cells, thereby promoting the synthesis and release of acetylcholine— neurotransmitter essential to memory, cognition, sleep and neuromuscular control. Acetylcholine decline coincides with advancing age and is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease. (127,330)

Restores Supply and Output of Acetylcholine

Chart of young versus old shows supplementation with phosphatidylserine restores a healthy supply of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is a brain transmitter essential to memory, cognition, sleep and neuromuscular control.

Phosphatidylserine (PS) in Flavay Plus® restores the availability of endogenous choline for de novo synthesis and release, (128-131) while similar use of phosphatidylcholine (PC) had no effect. (132)

Studies demonstrate phosphatidylserine restores the brain’s supply and output of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter important to memory, and so may turn back the clock in an aging brain. (126, 127, 168)

Phosphatidylserine restores acetylcholine release by maintaining an adequate acetylcholine supply. Phosphatidylserine can increase the availability of endogenous choline for de novo synthesis and release (128-131), while similar use of phosphatidylcholine (PC) had no effect. (132)

Stimulates Brain Dopamine

Chart of young versus old shows supplementation with phosphatidylserine restores healthy youthful levels of dopamine. Dopamine is a brain transmitter which regulates the sense of well-being, reward-behavior, mood and bodily coordination.

(PS) in Flavay Plus® restores your brain’s supply and output of dopamine—essential to memory, attention and problem-solving. Dopamine is also associated to the sense-of well-being, reward-behavior, mood and bodily coordination. (128-133,331,332)

Phosphatidylserine restores dopamine release and benefits glutamatergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic, glutamatergic and cholinergic neurotransmission play an important role in learning, memory and other cognitive functions. (133,299)

Persons diagnosed with clinical depression have shown marked improvement in their symptoms as a result of taking phosphatidylserine daily and this is likely connected to the finding that phosphatidylserine restores dopamine release. Reduced dopamine levels are also thought to contribute to attention deficit disorder and this natural substance has proven to be an effective therapeutic agent for ADD and ADHD. (114, 128-133)

Normalizes Cortisol (Stress) and Speeds Recovery from Injury

Chart of phosphatidylserine supplementation shows phosphatidylserine inhibits stress- induced and exercise-induced increases in cortisol.

(PS) in Flavay Plus® significantly inhibits ACTH and cortisol (stress-induced and exercise-induced hormones) in exercise. (134)

Following intense weight-training, cortisol was significantly lower in subjects taking phosphatidylserine. (121,144,145)

Various studies show phosphatidylserine can speed recovery, prevent muscle soreness and help athletes feel their best during training. (121,144,145)

Increase Endurance and Time to Exhaustion

Chart shows phosphatidylserine in Flavay Plus can significantly increase time to exhaustion, up to 30 percent more time in cycling exercise.

(PS) in Flavay Plus® can significantly increase time to exhaustion in cycling. (258)

A double-blind, placebo controlled study using 14 healthy and trained male athletes underwent cycling exercise prior to and following the supplementation period. Endurance was measured using a cycle ergometer at 85% VO2 max. After ten days, the group taking phosphatidylserine experienced about 30% more time before exhaustion, while the placebo group experienced no change. (258)

Phosphatidylserine is Important To Every Cell in Your Body

Phosphatidylserine is found in every cell in your body and the membrane proteins it activates are important in all your cells. Research shows phosphatidylserine is important to:

  • bone matrix formation,
  • testicular function,
  • beat coordination of the heart,
  • hormone secretion by the adrenal glands,
  • cell repair and removal by the immune system. (111,112)

Phosphatidylserine is necessary for transmission of information between your brain cells. (111,112)

Turn Back Brain-Aging with Phosphatidylserine

Human clinical studies show phosphatidylserine may assist against the symptoms of dementia and Age-Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI), also in reducing the risk of dementia and cognitive dysfunction.

Chart: Years of improvement following 12 weeks of 300 mg of phosphatidylserine in Flavay Plus per day. 13.9 Years: Remembering names after introduction. 11.6 Years: Learning and Remembering written information. 7.4 Years: Recognizing a previously seen person. 3.9 Years: Dialing a ten-digit phone number from Memory.

Flavay Plus® (4 per day) for 12 weeks may result in reversal of brain-aging by nearly 14 years. (168, 126)

A reversal of brain-aging of nearly 14 years was shown after 12 weeks of supplementation with 300 mg per day of phosphatidylserine. Improvements were found in learning and remembering written information, remembering names and recognizing people, and memory of numbers. (168)

Children and young adults also get results in maintaining a sharp mind and controlling stress. Studies show students experience improved learning abilities and performance. Placebo-controlled and double-blind trials show that young university students experience significantly less stress from tests, stay more clear-headed and composed, and keep a more stable mood when taking phosphatidylserine. (125)

What is Phosphatidylserine?

Phosphatidylserine is a phospholipid (a fatty molecule) which contains both amino and fatty acids.

The molecular structure of phosphatidylserine molecule with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linoleic acid (LA) tails

Phosphatidylserine is a fatty molecule and includes amino and fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

Phosphatidylserine is found in every human cell and is universally present in living things from the most simple to the most complex. Phosphatidylserine has many known functions throughout all our tissues and organs, and most importantly, our brain.

This natural supplement has proven effective for ADD and ADHD.

Decades of research have established phosphatidylserine (derived from soy lecithin*) as the best single means for conserving memory and other higher brain functions. Findings from controlled clinical trials show when intake of phosphatidylserine is doubled, or better still quadrupled, as a dietary supplement, the majority of persons derive measurable brain benefits. (211, 110)

*Newer sources of phosphatidylserine are now in the marketplace, see: Has sunflower-derived phosphatidylserine proven effective for cognitive improvement?

Phosphatidylserine supplementation is shown to improve a large number of cognitive functions, including memory, learning and attention, and reduction of stress.

Phosphatidylserine is found mainly in the inner part of cell membranes where it acts as a signaling molecule and is involved in a number of enzymatic functions. While most tissues are no more than 3% phosphatidylserine, your brain and nerve cells are highly enriched with phosphatidlyserine, up to 18%. Nerve cells depend on phosphatidylserine for normal neuro-transmitter metabolism and nerve signal transmission. Maintaining brain levels of phosphatidylserine is associated to normal and efficient signal transduction processes, efficient glucose metabolism and healthy cognitive and mental functions. (291,336,337)

Phosphorylated vs. Phosphatidyl

A phosphorylated serine is available as a dietary supplement but does not substitute for phosphatidyl serine (PS), despite the claims of its manufacturer. Though it resembles the head piece, phosphorylated serine is different—it is not a phospholipid and does not work like PS does.

Consumers report phosphorylated serine can cause highly uncomfortable adverse reactions. Be sure you get the real thing.

The molecular structure of phosphatidylserine molecule with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linoleic acid (LA) tails

Phosphatidylerine’s tails of amino and fatty acids, the extra negative charge on its head piece and unique conformation are essential to its specific actions.

Proven Safety

Phosphatidylserine in Flavay Plus® is extracted from soy which is confirmed non-GMO. The phosphatidylserine in Flavay Plus® was the subject of many human clinical trials regarding memory loss, mood, cognitive performance and learning ability.

The use of phosphatidylserine in Flavay Plus® is well validated through clinical research and proven safe in standard toxicology tests.

The large number of human studies conducted on phosphatidylserine in Flavay Plus® produced a flawless safety record. First, it has proven compatible with a wide array of medications including: antacids, anti-hypertensives, anti-inflammatories, anti-ulcer and mucolytic agents, diuretics, anti-thrombotics, hypoglycemics, anti-arrhythmics, insulin, calcium channel blockers, calcitonin, chemotherapy drugs and other prescription medications. Second, phosphatidylserine is well tolerated by elderly patients with chronic diseases such as cerebrovascular, artery and vein disorders, heart diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, lung diseases, digestive system diseases and arthritis.

Interestingly, clinical researchers found phosphatidylserine lowered uric acid levels and liver SGPT in their elderly patients—which can signify improved liver health. (106,110,114-117,119)

Authentic vs. “Borrowed” Science

Not all phosphatidylserine products are equal. The marketplace is full of inferior variations of scientifically-proven products. Those who are looking for proven results—and not just claimed or implied results—want the authentic products proven in scientific research.

Has sunflower-derived phosphatidylserine proven effective for cognitive improvement?

Consumers want phosphatidylserine that's proven safe and effective. Phosphatidylserine in Flavay Plus® is patented and validated by clinical trials—and extracted from soy which is confirmed non-GMO.

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